Geography Terms +

(geography includes mapmakers, scientists, explorers of the earth and provides a way to look at both the physical world and the people who live in various parts this globe)

adiabatic process
1. The process by which the temperature of the air changes without adding or taking away heat.
2. The changing of sensible air temperature without the gain or loss of heat to or from the surrounding air.
1. The fraction of incident light that is reflected in all directions from an uneven surface; especially, the surface of the earth.
2. The fraction of the solar radiation that is reflected back into space.
3. The ratio of the amount of light reflected from an object in all directions to the amount of incident light.

An albedo of 1.0 corresponds to a perfect reflector.

Pertaining to alluvium (relating to, consisting of, or formed by sediment deposited by flowing water); such as, alluvial cones, fans (gravel and associated sediments deposited), plains, etc.
alluvial fan
A feature found in deserts, the result of stream deposits accumulating where stream channels emerge from the base of mountains and channel gradients (slopes or inclines) level out.
angle of response
A natural surface inclination of a slope consisting of loose, well-sorted rock or mineral fragments.
1. The upfold of strata resembling an arch or peaked roof.
2. An upfold of layered rocks in an archlike structure.
A center of high atmospheric pressure which spins in the opposite direction from that of a cyclone.
1. A high-pressure area with closed circulation, which rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
2. The center of high atmospheric pressure which spins in the opposite direction of a cyclone.
A point that lies diametrically opposite to a given point on the surface of the earth.
Places at opposite points on the globe.
1. The point in the orbit of a planet, comet, or other celestial body's point of orbit, at which it is farthest from the sun.
2. A point on the earth's elliptical orbit at which the sun is farthest from the earth.
A rock mass or layer with high porosity and high permeability that stores and transmits ground water.
artesian spring
Groundwater that flows to the surface as a result of hydrostatic pressure that forces water upward.
A soft layer of the upper mantle of the earth under the lithosphere.

The asthenosphere is a region in the upper mantle of the earth's interior, characterized by low-density, semiplastic (or partially molten) rock material chemically similar to the overlying lithosphere.

The upper part of the asthenosphere is believed to be the zone upon which the great rigid and brittle lithospheric plates of the earth's crust move around.

The asthenosphere is generally located between 45–155 miles (72–250 km) beneath the earth's surface, though under the oceans it is usually much nearer the surface and at mid-ocean ridges rises to within a few miles or kilometers of the ocean floor.

1. The thin layer of gasses surrounding the earth that is the medium for weather and climate.
2. An envelope of gas surrounding a planet, star, or other celestial body, where the gravitational field is strong enough to restrain the gases.