English Words from Arabic origins

(words that have come into English directly or indirectly, from or through, Arabic)

1. A long, sleeveless outer garment worn by Arabs, similar to a gown.
2. A woolen fabric, usually having stripes, made in Arab countries.
1. The supreme commander of a navy or fleet.
2. Arabic: amir al, "chief of the"; amir-ar-rahl, "chief of the transport", officer in the Mediterranean fleet, from amir, "leader".
1. The colorless, flammable, volatile liquid in wine, beer, whiskey, gin, and other fermented and distilled liquids that makes them intoxicating, commercially prepared from grain; grain alcohol; ethyl alcohol.

Alcohol is used in medicine, in manufacturing, and as a fuel.

2. From Arabic al-kuhl the "powdered antimony", originally, "fine powder", then "essence" and through Medieval Latin.
algebra, algebraic, algebraical
1. A branch of mathematics in which symbols, usually letters of the alphabet, represent numbers or members of a specified set and are used to represent quantities and to express general relationships for all members of the set to solve problems involving finite numbers.
2. Etymology: from Medieval Latin which came from Arabic al jebr or al-jabr, "reunion of broken parts", as in computation, used in the 9th century by Baghdad mathematician Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi as the title of his famous treatise on equation, Kitab al-Jabr w'al-Muqabala, "Rules of Reintegration and Reduction"; which also introduced Arabic numerals to the West.

The accent in pronunciation moved in the 17th century from the second syllable to first syllable. The word was used in English in the 15th century to the 16th century to mean al-, "the" + jabr, "bone-setting, restoration" (from jabara, "to set (bones), to force, to restore"; perhaps from the Arabs in Spain.

1. A logical step-by-step procedure for solving a mathematical problem in a finite number of steps, often involving repetition of the same basic operation.
2. A logical sequence of steps for solving a problem, often written out as a flow chart, which can be translated into a computer program.
3. A set of rules for solving problems or doing calculations, especially rules that a computer uses.
4. A completely determined and finite procedure for solving a problem; especially, when used in relation to mathematics and computer science.
5. A set of ordered steps for solving a problem; such as, a mathematical formula or the instructions in a computer program.

The terms algorithm and logic are synonymous because both refer to a sequence of steps to solve a problem; however, an algorithm implies an expression that solves a complex problem rather than the overall input-process-output logic of typical business programs.

7. Etymology: from the 1690's, or the late 17th century, from French algorithme, an alteration (under mistaken connection with Greek arithmos, "number") from Old French algorisme, "the Arabic numeral system" (13th century), from Middle Latin algorismus, a mistaken transliteration of Arabic al-Khwarizmi, "native of Khwarazm", the surname of the mathematician whose works introduced sophisticated mathematics and algorithms to the West.

The earlier form in Middle English was algorism from about the early 13th century, from Old French.

A reference to a well-defined procedure to solve a problem.

The study of algorithms is a fundamental area of computer science; and as such, when writing a computer program to solve a problem, a programmer expresses in a computer language an algorithm that solves the problem which turns the algorithm into a computer program.

1. A Semitic language of the Arabs, related to Hebrew, and is spoken primarily in Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and North Africa.
2. Of or relating to Arabia, the Arabs, their language, or their culture.
3. Belonging to, or derived from the language or literature of Arabs.
4. Noting, pertaining to, or in the alphabetical script used for the writing of Arabic probably since about the fourth century A.D., and adopted with modifications by Persian, Urdu, and many other languages.

A distinguishing feature of this script is the fact that etymologically short vowels are not normally represented.

5. A reference to such terms as Arab and Arabian.
1. A large flower bud with parts that can be eaten after cooking.
2. A thistle-like plant with large prickly leaves and its immature flowering head, which can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable.
3. Etymology: from articiocco, Northern Italian variant of Italian arcicioffo, from Old Spanish alcarchofa, which came from Arabic al-hursufa, "artichoke".

The Northern Italian variation probably is from the influence of ciocco, "stump".

Folk etymology has twisted the word in English; the ending is probably influenced by choke, and early forms of the word in English include archecokk, hortichock, artychough, and hartichoake.

The plant was known in Italy by the 1450's, brought to Florence from Naples in 1466, and introduced into England during the reign of Henry VIII.

1. A killer, especially of a political leader or other public figure.
2. Someone who murders by surprise attack; especially, a person who carries out a plot to kill a prominent person.
3. A member of a secret order of Muslim fanatics (founded in the 12th century), active in Persia and Syria from about 1090 to 1272, whose primary object was to assassinate, terrorize, and to kill Christian Crusaders.
4. Etymology: in Anglo-Latin from about the mid 13th century, via French and Italian, from Arabic hashsashin, "hashish-users", a plural of hashshash, Arabic for "hashish-eater".

In English, the Arabic plural form was thought to be a singular form which became known as a fanatical Ismaili Muslim sect at the time of the Crusades known to murder opposing leaders after intoxicating themselves by eating or smoking hashish or the drug cannabis.

1. An essential oil extracted from flowers; especially, the damask rose petals, used in its pure status or as a base for perfume.
2. Etymology: from Persian 'atar-gul, "essence of roses", from 'atar, "fragrance"; from Arabic 'utur, "perfumes, aromas".