Abbreviations Frequently Encountered

(shortened forms of spoken words or written symbols, or phrases, used chiefly in writing to represent the complete forms)

et al., et alii
and others
et seq., et sequentes
and the following
etc., et cetera
and so forth
f. or fem.
feminine; female
f.v., folio verso
on the back of the page
ibid., ibidem
in the same place
id., idem
the same
i.e., id est
that is
in pr., in principio
in the beginning
inf., infra
infra dig., infra dignitatem
loc. cit., loco citato
in the place cited
loq., loquitur
he/she speaks
m.m., mutatis mutandis
necessary changes being made
MS (s), MSS (pl); manuscriptum (s), manuscripta (pl)
manuscript (s), manuscripts (pl)

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