Science and Technology Words from the Ancient Past to the Present, Part 1

(terms appearing in some "scientific" areas from about 2000 B.C. to 1799 A.D.)

A system of public works; such as, roads and sewers, necessary to the functioning of a society.
The prevention of a disease by the introduction to the body, in small quantities, of the virus or other microorganism that causes a disease.
In geometry, to draw a figure inside another one in such a way that it touches, but does not overlap, the boundaries of the larger figure.
The insertion of an extra month in a year to make the calendar line up with the seasons.
The study of how objects move.
life expectancy
A calculation, based on statistical data, of the average life span of an organism.
A device on a canal that allows a vessel to negotiate changes in altitude by raising or lowering the water level.
A system of reasoning for reaching valid conclusions about concepts, and for assessing the validity of a conclusion that has been reached.
lunar calendar
A measure of the year based on twelve lunar months (the time it takes the moon to revolve around the earth), which lasts about 354.37 days.
1. In science, any device that transmits or modifies power, forces, or motion to do work can be classified as a machine.

A wrench, a jack, and a crowbar, used for changing tires are all "simple machines".

2. Any device that transmits, modifies, or magnifies forces for a specific purpose.

Machines typically either alter the amount of force applied, or the direction along which it is applied. A simple machine is a machine with only one or two parts.

1. A physical substance that occupies space, possesses mass, and is ultimately convertible to energy.

Matter can be a gas, liquid, or solid.

2. The substance of the universe; made up of atomic particles, atoms, and molecules.

Matter exists in four familiar states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma (gas consisting of electrons and ions).

A branch of physics concerned with the study of bodies in motion.
A reference to the Middle Ages or the period in European history between antiquity and the Italian Renaissance, often considered to be between the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century and the early 15th century (from about 500 A.D. to about 1350 A.D.)

It is sometimes restricted to the later part of this period (after 1100 A.D.) and sometimes extended to 1450 A.D or 1500 A.D.

The science and technology of metals.
Usually a woman who assists other women in childbirth and who seldom had any formal medical training.

Index of additional Scientific and Technological Topics.