Science and Technology Words from the More Recent Past to the Present, Part 2

(terms appearing in some "scientific" areas from about 1800 A.D. to 1899 A.D.)

The science dealing with sound.
The insertion of thin needles into specific parts of the body in order to relieve pain or to treat an illness.

A very old method of treatment that originated in China.

Adjustment of structures or modes of living (including methods of reproduction) that better fit an organism to its environment, thereby favoring successful competition with other organisms and survival.
agricultural chemistry
The field of science in which chemicals are used to increase the quality or amount of farm crops produced.

synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides (weed-killers) are examples of such chemicals.

1. A mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases that make up the earth's atmosphere.

In ancient times, the name used for a gas.

2. The mixture of gases that make up the earth's atmosphere.

The principal gases that compose dry air are: Nitrogen, 78.09%; Oxygen, 20.95%; Argon, 0.93%; and Carbon Dioxide, 0.033%.

Another important constituent of air is water vapor which varies from 0% to about 4%.

alternating current, AC
A type of electrical current, the direction of which is reversed at regular intervals or cycles.

In the United States, the standard is 120 reversals or 60 cycles per second. Electricity transmission networks use alternating current because voltage can be controlled with relative ease.

Alternating current is easier to transmit over long distances than direct current (DC), and it is the form of electricity used today in most homes and businesses.

An alloy (mixture) of mercury and at least one other metal, used to fill cavities in teeth.
A chemical that offers pain relief.
Any chemical that will cause the loss of consciousness and immunity to pain.
An infectious disease that occurs most commonly among cattle and sheep, but that can also be transmitted to humans.
1. The study of the cultural development of groups of people by examining their customs, beliefs, and behavior.
2. The study of humans, concentrating on culture, defined as non-genetic human behavior.
    Normally broken down into these various fields:
    • Cultural anthropology, contemporary cultures.
    • Archeology, cultures of the past.
    • Linguistic anthropology, languages and their cultural roles.
    • Physical anthropology, the evolution of humans and the relationsip between biology and culture.
a chemical that kills disease-causing microorganisms.
The branch of mathematics that involves calculations; such as, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, with real numbers.
art therapy
A form of treatment in which patients are encouraged to express their thoughts and feelings through painting, sculpture, or some other form of art.
assembly line
A series of devices, materials, and workers that allow one object after another to be assembled step-by-step.

Index of additional Scientific and Technological Topics.