Anatomy and Related Anatomical Terms

(the structure of organisms from the smallest components of cells to the biggest organs and their relationships to other organs especially of the human body)

Diseases affect the anatomy and changes in the anatomical structure can cause diseases.

antagonistic muscle (s) (noun), antagonistic muscles (pl)
One of a pair of muscles allowing coordinated movements of the skeletal joints: The individual components of antagonistic muscles can be classified into extensors (muscles that straighten a limb) and flexors (muscles that bend a limb).
antibody (s) (noun), antibodies (pl)
A protein molecule produced in the blood by lymphocytes in response to the presence of foreign or invading substances (antigens): Antibodies can connect with components that the body recognizes as foreign or strange, such as viruses and bacteria, or even alien elements in the blood.
antidiuretic hormone, ADH (s) (noun), antidiuretic hormones (pl)
A pituitary hormone that prevents excessive fluid loss: An antidiuretic hormone is part of the system maintaining a correct salt and water balance in vertebrates which includes any animal, as well as humans, with a segmented spinal column and a well-developed brain, for example a mammal, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian, or a fish.

antigen (s) (noun), antigens (pl)
In immunology, any substance that causes the production of antibodies by the body's immune system: An antigen can be a toxin or an enzyme that encourages the production of antibodies.
anus (s) (noun), anuses; ani (pl)
The opening at the end of the alimentary canal that allows undigested food and other waste materials to pass out of the body, in the form of feces: The end of the colon is where the solid matter of the body collects before it moves out through the anus by the way of a bowel movement.
appendix (s) (noun), appendices; appendixes (pl)
1. A short, blind-ended tube attached to the cecum or caecum: The appendix is a small pouch-like tube that is linked to the large intestine, and since it has no use in the body, it can be surgically removed if it becomes infected.

The appendix is in the first portion of the large bowel, situated in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.

The cecum receives fecal material from the small bowel (ileum) which opens into it and the appendix, as stated above, is attached to the cecum.
2. Etymology: The word "cecum" comes from Latin caecus, "blind". This refers to the fact that the bottom of the cecum is a blind pouch (a cul de sac) leading nowhere.

applied anatomy (s) (noun), applied anatomies (pl)
The practical application of anatomic knowledge to the human body; clinical anatomy: Applied anatomy is very important for the diagnosis and treatment including surgical techniques in clinical situations.
aqueous humor (s) (noun), aqueous humors (pl)
The watery fluid found in the chamber between the cornea and lens of the vertebrate eye (any animal that possesses a backbone and eyes): A critical decrease of aqueous humor flow in the eye can be caused by a vasoconstriction.

Similar to blood plasma in composition, aqueous humor is constantly being renewed.

artery (s) (noun), arteries (pl)
A vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body: In order to keep a person's heart healthy, it is vital to keep it clean.
artificial anatomy (s) (noun), artificial anatomies (pl)
The study of structures and their relationships by means of models or other manufactured articles: Jeff had to learn all about artificial anatomy in one of his classes before progressing to more advanced stages of his medical education.
artistic anatomy (s) (noun), artistic anatomies (pl)
The study of human anatomy by artists: At college there was a course on artistic anatomy which would be excellent for sculptors, painters and amateurs in order to improve their perceptions and skill in representing the human body.
assimilation (s) (noun), assimilations (pl)
A process by which absorbed food molecules, circulating in the blood, pass into the cells and are used for growth, tissue repair, and other metabolic activities: The actual destiny of each food molecule in the course of assimilation depends not only on its type, but also on the body requirements at the time when it is moving around.

atrium (s) (noun), atriums (pl)
Either of the two upper chambers of the heart: Both atriums in the heart are vital to a person's life. The right atrium takes in deoxygenated blood, while the pulmonary vein pumps oxygenated blood into the left atrium.
auditory canal (s) (noun), auditory canal (pl)
The tube leading from the outer ear opening to the eardrum: The auditory canals link the outer part of the ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane.
autonomic nervous system (s) (noun), autonomic nervous systems (pl)
Part of the nervous system that controls involuntary functions: The autonomic nervous system governs or regulates the heart rate and the activity of the intestines.

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