Criminal Court Words or Judicial Terms +

(judicial or legal words that may apply to trial processes that determine the guilt or innocence of people which is ascertained by either judges or juries)

A statement in writing given under oath before someone who is authorized to administer an oath.
To uphold the opinion or decision of a lower trial court; usually, an action by an appellate court.
In courts, an oath, or a declaration in place of an oath for people whose religious beliefs prohibit oaths, to tell the truth and nothing but the truth when giving legal testimony.
affirmative registration
Action on the part of women to actively seek to be included on juries, which were formerly comprised exclusively of men.
affirmtive defenses
Responses to a criminal charge where the defendant bears the burden of proof; such as, automatism, intoxication, coercion, duress, mistake, etc.

It goes beyond the simple denial of facts and gives new facts in favor of the defendant, if the information in the original complaint are true.

age of majority, age of consent
Chronological date when one reaches adulthood, usually either 18 or 21; when juveniles are no longer under the jurisdiction of the juvenile courts, but rather the criminal courts.
aggravating circumstances
Events about crime that may intensify the severity of punishment, including bodily injury, death of the victim, or the brutality of the act.
Defense to a criminal allegation that places an accused individual at some other place than the crime scene at the time the crime occurred.
An assertion or a claim made by someone regarding a legal action.
To aver, assert, claim; usually a prosecutor will allege certain facts in developing a case against a criminal defendant.
Right of convicted offenders to address the court personally prior to the imposition of sentences.
alternate jurors
Jurors who have been selected to replace any of the regular jurors who may become ill and cannot attend the full trial proceeding.

These replacement jurors are responsible for the same tasks as regular jurors who will hear and decide cases.

alternative dispute resolution, ADR
A procedure whereby a criminal case is redefined as a civil one and the case is decided by an impartial arbiter, where other parties agree to an amicable settlement.

This is usually reserved for minor offenses.

A modification, addition, or deletion.
American Bar Association, ABA
National organization of U.S. lawyers headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

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