Archeology, Archaeology

(a glossary of archeological terms particularly related to the field of research that can tell us about our origins and our remote past)

A piece of portable stone that is the result of human manufacture, whether it be a stone tool or a piece of waste material.
marvels of the Maya
In 1839, Frederick Catherwood and John Lloyd Stephens explored Central America, visiting the Maya monuments of Copan, Palenque, and Uxmal. Stephens' fascination with the Maya has continued to these modern times.
A large, often undressed, stone used in building constructions.
A term for Central America that includes such countries as Mexico, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
A period of European prehistory after the Paleolithic but before the advent of Neolithic farmers, when hunter-gatherers were adapting to a warming environment.
A flat slab of stone, sometimes carved, that was part of the frieze in Doric architecture.
An extinct form of Homo sapiens that appeared in the Old World before 100,000 years ago and lived until about 30,000 years ago.
Near East
The term for Southwest Asia: Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, among others.
The period of Old World prehistory characterized by the appearance of farming, settled communities and pottery.

It follows the Mesolithic and appears at different times in different places.

New World
A generic term for the Americas.
Old World
A generic term for Europe, Asia, and Africa.
In classical Greek cities, people voted on whether individuals should be exiled by writing their names on ostraka, or fragments of pottery.
The study of human ancestry suggests that the earliest evolution towards modern humans started in Africa six million years ago.

More human-like species (classified in the genus Homo) evolved from about two million years ago, from the more ape-like Australopithecines followed by the various Homo species that migrated from Africa to colonize the rest of the world.

A vast period that covers most of human existence, from our origins five million years ago to about 12,000 years ago.

This period sees the emergence of biologically modern humans, as well as, significant developments in the human cultural repertoire or the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used during the Paleolithic period.

The triangular space, sometimes covered with sculpture, at the end of a Greek temple, formed by the angle of the roof.

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