Criminal Court Words or Judicial Terms +

(judicial or legal words that may apply to trial processes that determine the guilt or innocence of people which is ascertained by either judges or juries)

Limited distribution of power among a few top staff members of an organization.
challenges for cause
In jury selection, the method used by either the prosecution or defense attorneys to strike or to remove prospective jurors from the available jury pool because of prejudices they might have, either toward the defendant or the prosecution.

Prospective jurors may also be excused from jury duty because of being law enforcement officers, relatives of law enforcement officers, court officers, or relatives of court officers.

Any obvious bias for or against a defendant may result in the exclusion of the biased prospective juror.

challenges of jurors
Questions raised of jurors by the judge, prosecutor, and/or defense attorney relating to their qualifications as impartial finders of fact; a determination of juror bias one way or another for or against the defendant.
Usually a judge's office in a courthouse.
change of venue
A change in the place of trial, usually from one country or district to another one.

Changes of venue are often conducted to avoid prejudicial trial proceedings, where it is believed that a fair trial cannot be obtained in the specific jurisdiction where the crime was alleged to have been committed.

A formal allegation filed against a defendant in which one or more crimes are presented.
charge reduction bargaining, charge bargaining
A negotiation process between prosecutors and defense attorneys involving dismissal of one or more charges against defendants in exchange for a guilty plea to the remaining charges, or in which the prosecutor downgrades the charges in return for a plea of guilty.
chief justice
The presiding or principal judge of a court, possessing nominal authority over the other judges; such as, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
chronic offenders
Habitual criminal offenders; repeat offenders; persistent offenders; and young people who commit frequent delinquent acts.
chronic recidivists
People who continue to commit new crimes after being convicted of former offenses.
nolo contendere plea
Latin for "I do not wish to contend".

Admitting to certain facts as specified by the prosecution or an answer of "no contest" by a defendant who does not admit guilt but which subjects him to conviction, as if a guilty plea had been entered, the determination of guilt remaining open in other legal proceedings.

voir dire (vwahr DIR)
"To speak the truth."

Interrogation process whereby prospective jurors are questioned by either the judge or by the prosecution or defense attorneys to determine their biases and prejudices.

Voir dire is the crucial process through which attorneys attempt to uncover prospective juror biases, which might prevent certain jurors from providing defendants with a fair and impartial trial.

Some people have argued that while voir dire has frequently been called "jury selection", this term really is inappropriate because those who sit on a jury are not selected as much as they are eliminated when they are determined to be unsuitable.

writ of certiorari
A writ issued by a higher court directing a lower court to prepare the record of a case and to send it to the higher court for review.

It is a means of accessing the U.S. Supreme Court in order for a case to be heard.

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